Osthole is extracted from Cnidium monnieri, which is the dry and mature fruit of the plant Cnidium monnieri. By separation and identification, the Cnidium can separate the volatile oil, coumarin, flavonoids and other components of Cnidium. Modern pharmacological studies have found that Cnidium can also prevent oxidation, prevent osteoporosis, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and other effects.
1. Chemical composition
There are many places where Cnidium is produced, and its chemical composition and content vary greatly depending on the origin and extraction methods.
1.1 Coumarin compounds
It mainly includes osthole, imperatorin, isoimperatorin, bergamot lactone, acetyl osthole, etc. Among them, osthole is the main pharmacological active substance of Cnidium.
1.2 Volatile oil
It mainly contains sesquiterpenoids, such as limonene, α-pine, terpene, borneol acetate and other ingredients. Among them, sesquiterpenoids, alkyds, esters, and sterols are more abundant, and brain, aldehyde, acid and other compounds are less.
There are few separations and studies on flavonoids. It is determined by experiments that the total flavonoids in Cnidium contains about 6.612 mg•g-1, which proves that the total flavonoids in Cnidium is not low.
2 Pharmacological effects
2.1 Treatment of a variety of skin diseases
Clinically, Cnidium and other traditional Chinese medicines such as Sophora flavescens, Phellodendron, and Camphor are used to form a compound preparation, and water decoction, expectorant, etc. are used to treat skin ailments by fumigation and washing. It has been reported to have a good effect on the treatment of intractable genital itching, eczema, genital herpes, vaginal inflammation. Studies have found that the components of Cnidium can inhibit the bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, common animals and human superficial fungi, herpes simplex virus and other viruses. Ostrich can inhibit the release of inflammatory mediators from macrophages and reduce the release of allergic mediators from mast cells. It has anti-inflammatory effects and anti-itch and anti-allergy effects on many types of acute and chronic inflammation models.
2.2 Anti-tumor effect
2.3 Prevention and treatment of osteoporosis
Studies have shown that the composition of osthole in Cnidium can increase bone density, promote the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, inhibit bone resorption, and maintain bone mass at the original level. By constructing a rat osteoporosis model, it was verified that it has a certain preventive effect on the osteoporosis model.
2.4 Antioxidant, protect cardiovascular function
Experiments have verified that osthole has a scavenging effect on all three free radicals, indicating its antioxidant effect. Osthole can attenuate lung injury in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock, increase SOD levels in lung tissue, and reduce MDA levels. It indicates that it reduces the level of oxidative stress in lung injury, exerts anti-oxidation and protects cardiovascular effects.
In vitro studies have found that Cnidium can reduce the apoptosis rate of hippocampal neurons cultured in vitro, enhance the secretion of sleep-related inhibitory neurotransmitters such as GABA, 5-HT, etc., and also regulate the clock gene. Thereby the brain excitability is reduced to promote sleep.
2.6 Other pharmacological effects
Cnidium has anti-epilepsy, promotes learning and memory, androgen-like effects; it also protects melanocyte activity and has a therapeutic effect on vitiligo.
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