Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, a Cucurbitaceae Gynostemma Blume Bijdr., a perennial herbaceous vine climbing plant. Modern research shows that Gynostemma pentaphyllum mainly contains saponins, polysaccharides, flavonoids and other chemical components, which have the functions of lowering blood sugar, lowering blood fat, protecting liver, resisting oxidation, resisting aging, and protecting cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.
1. Chemical composition
Gynostemma contains various chemical components such as saponins, polysaccharides, flavonoids and inorganic elements.
The saponin is the main active ingredient of Gynostemma pentaphyllum, mainly distributed in the vegetative organs of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. With the rapid development of chromatographic separation technology and spectroscopy technology, 201 kinds of saponin components have been found, and the aglycon part is basically dammarane type tetracyclic three-position, of which 6 are ginsenosides. The structure of five saponin components was obtained by spectral analysis and chemical method on the ground part of Gynostemma pentaphyllum, respectively. 3 -O-β -D-glucopyranosyl 2α,3β,12β,20(S)-3 hydroxy-Dama Alkane 24-ene 20-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), Gynosaponin TN-1 (2), Gypenoside LXXVII (3), Gypenoside XLVI (4) and Gypenoside Rd (5). Two kinds of dammarane-type saponins were extracted from the total extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum by silica gel column chromatography and reversed-phase semi-preparative column chromatography, which were respectively Gynostemma sinensis XLVI and gypenoside LVI. The content of ginsenoside Rb1, Gynostemma saponin A, Gynostemma saponin XLIX and esculin XVII in Gynostemma pentaphyllum was simultaneously determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering (RP-HPLC-ELSD).
The polysaccharide component is abundant in Gynostemma pentaphyllum, mainly in its stem and leaf parts, and is the main component of the longevity of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Polysaccharides have almost no toxic and side effects on the human body, and have broad application prospects in controlling many diseases that threaten human health. At present, most researches at home and abroad focus on the extraction, separation, purification and biological activity of Gynostemma pentaphyllum polysaccharides, and there are relatively few studies on the molecular structure-activity relationship and mechanism of its structure. By extracting and separating the polysaccharide components from the bentgrass of Shaanxi Pingli and analyzing its composition, it was found that the polysaccharides were composed of 8 kinds of mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose. Monosaccharide composition. Two homogenous polysaccharides were found by separation and purification of Gynostemma pentaphyllum, GPS-2 and GPS-3, respectively. The preliminary structural analysis of GPS-3 was carried out. The GPS-3 content was 78.10% and the molecular weight was 9 100 Dal.
Flavonoids are secondary metabolites in plants, and the flavonoids found in Gynostemma pentaphyllum are currently found to be less. Five kinds of flavonoids such as ruthenium, isorhamnetin, quercetin, ruthenium and rutin were isolated from the aerial part of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Seven kinds of flavonoids such as hazelnut, kaempferol, ruthenium, ruthenium, quercetin, isorhamnetin and stearic acid were isolated from the stem and leaf parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Analysis and chemical reaction identified hazelnut flavin as phytolactin-3-O-β-D-glucoside. The extraction of flavonoids is closely related to temperature, and the dissolution rate increases with the increase of extraction temperature. However, if the temperature is too high, the flavonoids of gynostemma rupture and the flavonoid extraction rate will decrease, so the optimal extraction temperature is 70 ～. 100 °C.
1.4 Inorganic elements
The pharmacodynamic effect of traditional Chinese medicine has a certain correlation with the content of inorganic elements. The determination of inorganic element content has certain significance for clarifying the mechanism of action of traditional Chinese medicine. Gynostemma contains 23 inorganic elements, 13 of which are essential trace elements. Trace elements have different content in different parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. The content of Mg and Zn in Gynostemma pentaphyllum was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The content of Mg in leaves was higher than that in buds, and the content of Zn in buds was higher than that in leaves. In the test for the determination of some inorganic elements in Gynostemma pentaphyllum in Guangxi, 19 inorganic trace elements were found, 10 of which are trace elements necessary for human body, namely Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo, Me, Ni, Cr, V, Se and Si.
Gynostemma contains 18 amino acids, 8 of which are essential for the human body. Studies have shown that the content of lysine, leucine and proline in Gynostemma pentaphyllum is much higher than that of various fruits and vegetables. Gynostemma also contains vitamins, alkaloids, volatile oils, organic acids and other components, of which volatile oil has obvious scavenging effect on hydroxyl radicals. The volatile components of different numbers of Gynostemma pentaphyllum were analyzed by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The highest content of Gynostemma pentaphyllum was found to be geranylacetone. The highest content of Gynostemma pentaphyllum was benzaldehyde. The highest content of leaves and nine leaves of Gynostemma is linalool.
2 Pharmacological effects
2.1 lowering blood fat, lowering blood sugar
Hyperlipidemia is a metabolic disease with a high incidence. Western medicine treats hyperlipidemia with a single target method. Therefore, there are many shortcomings in the treatment of complicated hyperlipidemia. It has been confirmed that traditional Chinese medicine Gynostemma pentaphyllum has a significant lipid-lowering effect, can effectively treat hyperlipidemia, and can restore fatty acid composition in the body. 40%, 80%, 98% of Gynostemma pentaphyllum can effectively reduce the blood lipid level of hyperlipidemia rats, and 98% of Gynostemma saponins are relatively effective. Studies have shown that the mechanism of action of Gynostemma hypoglycemic is related to the stimulation of insulin release, inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity.
2.2 Liver protection
The study found that Gynostemma pentaphyllum polysaccharides can protect liver tissue from oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by exhaustive exercise. Gynostemma pentaphyllum polysaccharide can protect CCL4-induced acute liver injury in rats, and its mechanism of action is related to anti-oxidation, regulation of Bcl-2/Bax expression, inhibition of apoptosis, and promotion of hepatocyte regeneration. At the same time, Gynostemma saponins have a good effect on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).
Gynostemma extract has the effect of delaying aging and resisting natural aging. The study found that Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract can increase the inhibition of hydroxyl radicals, increase the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in natural aging mice, and improve the natural aging of natural aging mice. Gynostemma extract can increase the activity of glutathione peroxidase and catalase in mice and reduce the content of H2O2, thus protecting skin from photoaging.
2.4 Improve memory
The anti-senile dementia activity of different polar parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract was studied. It was found that the ethyl acetate site, the petroleum ether site and the n-butanol site all had anti-Alzheimer's activity. Rats with brain damage caused by electroconvulsive method were treated with Gynostemma pentaphyllum, and it was found that Gynostemma pentaphyllum had a significant effect in improving the memory of model rats. Gynostemma saponins can improve the defects of spatial memory and habit learning, and can be used as an adjuvant therapy for Parkinson's syndrome.
In addition to the above effects, Gynostemma pentaphyllum also has anti-fatigue, anti-oxidation and the like. Hainan wild Gynostemma pentaphyllum has strong anti-lipid peroxidation damage. Taking Gynostemma pentaphyllum can eliminate excessive free radicals generated during exercise, protect the heart and liver from free radical damage, and have significant protection for liver and myocardial tissue. effect. Gynostemma total saponins can enhance the body's free radical scavenging rate and improve the body's antioxidant capacity, and can also improve the body's non-specific immunity by increasing the quality of the spleen and thymus. Gynostemma pentaphyllum is also often used as an animal feed additive. It has been found that it can improve the immunity of animal organisms, enable animals to obtain the required trace elements, and increase appetite, thereby achieving the effect of fattening. The total flavonoids of Gynostemma pentaphyllum can protect the ischemic myocardium, and its mechanism may be related to improving the degree of cardiac ischemia and reducing the scope of myocardial ischemia. By treating cervical cancer cells with different concentrations of Gynostemma pentaphyllum, it was found that Gynostemma pentaphyllum can inhibit the proliferation of cervical cancer cells and induce apoptosis. The active components are mostly C20, C21-containing dammarane-type tetracyclic three with free hydroxyl groups.
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