Icariin is a flavonoid extracted from the dried stems and leaves of Epimedium, and is the main active ingredient of total flavonoids of Epimedium. Experiments have shown that horny goat weed extract Icariincan delay the aging of many experimental species without obvious toxic side effects.
Aging is a degenerative change that will inevitably occur after the body matures. There are two kinds of aging in the body: one is physiological aging, and the other is pathological aging. There is no essential difference between the pathological and physiological changes of aging and senile diseases. If no intervention is carried out, it will inevitably develop into the pathophysiological changes of senile diseases, leading to the occurrence of senile diseases. Delaying aging includes delaying natural aging and pathological aging. Icariin has a wide range of biological effects in the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems, the immune system, the reproductive system, the skeletal system, tumors and aging.
1. Icariin's effect on nervous system aging
Icariin can increase the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) mRNA in hippocampus of natural aging rats, delaying aging; significantly reducing D-galactose-induced hippocampus in rats Neuronal damage improves learning and memory function, and its mechanism is related to anti-oxidative stress, repression of BDNF and TrkB mRNA and protein expression.
2. Icariin's effect on immune system aging
In the natural aging SD rat model, Icariin can inhibit lymphocyte over-apoptosis and delay immune senescence by increasing the activity of the transcription factor NF-κB and inducing high expression of p65. The lymphocytes isolated from the spleen of SD rats were selected as the study subjects. The flow cytometry method was used to compare the apoptosis rate of each representative age group from the 3rd day after birth until the 27th month of aging, and observe the Icariin effect on the elderly. The effect of excessive apoptosis. The results showed that the apoptotic rate was the lowest in the 3-day group, and the apoptotic rate increased gradually with age. The apoptotic rate was less than that in the 4-month-old group, and the 27-month-old cells were withered. The highest rate of death. After Icariin intervention, the apoptosis rate of the 27-month-old group decreased significantly, suggesting that the apoptosis rate of rat lymphocytes gradually increased with age, and there was excessive apoptosis in aged rats, while Icariin It can inhibit excessive apoptosis of lymphocytes in the elderly and delay immune aging.
3. Icariin effects on reproductive system aging
In the D-galactose-induced mouse aging model, Icariin can restore testicular function to a certain extent and promote testosterone secretion; Icariin can increase testicular tissue SOD activity, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP) And the activity of glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT), which reduces the MDA content in aging mice, indicating that Icariin has protective effects on testicular lesions in aging model mice, and its mechanism may be related to testicular antioxidant activity and promoting testosterone secretion. related.
4. Icariin effects on endometriosis aging
In the D-galactose-induced aging rat model, Icariin can increase serum 25-(OH) vitamin D3 [25 ( OH) D3] and 1,25 - dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1, 25 ( OH) in aging model rats. 2 D3] level, improve the activation of vitamin D in the adrenal cortex of aging rats, and increase the expression and production of adrenal cortical hormone-related genes CYP27B1, CYP19A1, CYP17A1, VDR mRNA in aging rats, and reduce the mRNA expression of CYP24A1 to exert its anti-aging effect.
Natural aging SD rats hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal gland, lung and serum, at the transcriptional and protein levels, Icariin by down-regulating endogenous pro-inflammatory factors and up-regulating endogenous anti-inflammatory cytokine expression, remodeling - A new balance of anti-inflammatory cytokine networks and pro-inflammatory systems; activation of SIRT6 enzyme activity, up-regulation of SIRT6 protein expression in aged mouse tissues, inhibition of NF-κB (p65) pathway delays in male BALB/C mouse hearts Inflammatory aging. Icariin can also interfere with inflammatory aging by regulating the hippocampus-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and then regulating the pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokine network. Icariin inhibits insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway (IIS pathway), increases FOXO/DAF-16 activity factor activity, inhibits insulin transmission, prolongs human diploid fibroblasts (MRC-5), and lower-mode biospecies And the healthy life span of aging mice in higher mammals, delaying aging.
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