Turmeric root extract curcumins is extracted from the genus Curcuma, widely planted in tropical and subtropical regions. The main chemical components in turmeric are phenols and terpenes. In addition, a small amount of alkaloids and sterols are also contained. Turmeric has anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and other effects.
1 Chemical composition
Turmeric is one of the most studied chemical constituents in the genus Curcuma. To date, at least 235 compounds have been identified from this species, primarily curcuminoids and volatile oils.
1.1 Phenolic compounds
1.1.1 Diphenylheptane and diphenyl ketone
Curcumin compounds belong to diphenylheptane, which contains the phenyl ring-C7-benzene ring skeleton structure and is the main active compound in turmeric. Can be used as a food coloring. Usually, the phenolic compound content is 3% to 15% of turmeric. At present, a variety of curcuminoid compounds are isolated and extracted from turmeric, including curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, tetrahydroxycurcumin, cyclocurcumin and the like.
1.1.2 Phenylpropene and other phenolic compounds
At present, vanillic acid, vanillin and six monomeric phenylpropenes have also been identified in turmeric.
Most of the terpenoids are volatile components in turmeric and have an aromatic odor. To date, hundreds of olefinic compounds, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, biguanides and triterpenoids, have been isolated or detected from the leaves, flowers, roots and rhizomes of turmeric plants.
Monoterpenoids are mainly found in leaves or flowers in turmeric plants, mainly p-cymene, β-phellandrene, terpinolene, p-cymen-8-ol, cineole, myrcene and the like. It has been reported that 68 monoterpenoids have been identified in various tissues of turmeric.
The volatile oil content of dried turmeric rhizomes is 1.5% to 5%, mainly sesquiterpenoids, which is the main source of aromatic odor. The main components are Ar-turmerone and α-turmerone β-turmerone, which account for about 40% of the total volatile oil content. Up to now, more than 100 sesquiterpenoids have been identified, and the chemical types are mainly bisabolane, germacrane, guaiane, santanale, caryophyllane, elemane, acorane, aristolene, cedrane, himachalene, etc., among which the mycophenolic type is the most abundant. 1.2.3 Diterpenoids and triterpenoids Manzanaccm et al. have identified four biguanides and three triterpenoids in turmeric.
Studies have shown that turmeric also contains flavonoids and glycosides. At present, the flavonoids isolated and identified include dihydroflavonol, flavonoids, flavonols, and the aglycones thereof include lutein, apigenin, quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin and the like.
1.4 Other classes
In addition, it is reported that turmeric also contains steroids, long-chain fatty acids, alkaloids and polysaccharides.
2 Pharmacological effects
At present, as a natural medicine, turmeric has surpassed the traditional Chinese medicine theory and become a new hot spot in natural medicine research. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that many chemical components in turmeric have strong biological activity.
Preclinical cell and animal studies have shown that turmeric extract and curcumin have shown inhibition in different stages of pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, liver cancer, skin cancer, breast cancer, oral cancer and leukemia. .
The turmeric extract has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus, Enterococcus, Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Curcumin can bind to the flagella of S. Enteritidis, causing it to rupture, thereby reducing the viability of S. Enteritidis. The study found that curcumin can up-regulate the transcription of PKC, chitin synthase-1 and chitin synthase-3 in macrophages and promote the secretion of inflammatory cytokines; curcumin acts as a photodynamic antibacterial against Aspergillus flavus The photosensitizer of chemotherapy exhibits an antibacterial effect.
The anti-inflammatory effects of turmeric and its active ingredients are mainly achieved by reducing the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, mediating a variety of inflammatory signaling pathways, and regulating inflammation-related cellular functions such as macrophages. Curcumin also regulates receptor activators of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) (inducing osteoclast differentiation, activation and function) and reduces inflammatory bone loss.
Compounds such as curcumin in turmeric exhibit antioxidant effects mainly by inhibiting oxidative stress-mediated ROS or lipid peroxidation. Studies have shown that curcumin has a powerful oxygen free radical scavenger, its antioxidant activity is comparable to vitamins C and E, and can protect lipids or hemoglobin from oxidation. Turmeric extract and curcumin have strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which can significantly reduce the total number of white blood cells and lymphocytes and NO2, NO3, MDA levels in asthmatic rats, and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD). The levels of catalase (CAT) and sulfhydryl groups have comparable effects to dexamethasone, suggesting that turmeric and its main component, curcumin, have potential for prophylactic treatment of inflammation and oxidative stress in asthmatic symptoms.
2.5 Liver protection
Turmeric extract and curcumin can protect the liver by anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, and fibrosis inhibition. CCL4-induced rat liver injury model experiments demonstrated that curcumol extract and curcumin inhibit liver ROS in acute and chronic stress, restore altered ER folding status, regulate ER stress and resulting liver dyslipidemia, Thereby promoting the recovery of CCl4-induced liver damage.
Turmeric and its active ingredients prevent the development of type 2 diabetes by improving insulin expression, enhancing insulin sensitivity, inhibiting glucose uptake, and anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects.
2.7 Lowering blood fat
The study found that the ethanol extract of turmeric can reduce the blood lipids of experimental hyperlipidemia mice, and the 1:1 ratio of rhubarb and turmeric ethanol extracts is better than that of single-flavor extracts. Curcumin can reduce the levels of TG and TC in plasma and liver; regulate liver lipid metabolism and reduce high-fat diet by protein kinase (AMPK) activation and increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα) HFD) induces hepatic steatosis and inhibits the development of fatty liver. Turmeric volatile oil can inhibit hyperlipidemia and reduce lipid-induced oxidative stress, platelet activation and vascular function by regulating PPARα, liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) and related genes involved in lipid metabolism and transport. Obstruction; can also attenuate accelerated atherosclerosis, inflammation, and macrophage foam cell formation caused by arterial injury.
Curcumin has a protective effect on protein kinase PINK1-deficient mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, which may contribute to the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Curcumin exerts an antidepressant-like effect by inhibiting cytokine gene expression in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of chronically mildly stressed rats and reducing NF-κB activation, and regulating synaptic-associated proteins in the lateral amygdala.
2.9 Other effects
The turmeric antispasmodic agent has the effects of clearing away heat and dampness, promoting blood circulation and eliminating phlegm, and is used clinically to treat dermatitis. Turmeric extract can exert cardioprotective effects through antioxidant action. Turmeric also inhibits the formation of ulcers caused by stress, ethanol, indomethacin, reserpine, and pyloric ligation, inhibits intestinal spasm, increases secretion of bicarbonate, gastrin, secretin and pancreatic enzymes, and acts as a stomach. Intestinal protection. Curcumin can inhibit renal oxidative stress and prevent acute kidney injury caused by renal ischemia-reperfusion in rats, thereby reducing the incidence of renal failure and preventing acute tubular epithelial necrosis due to endotoxemia. Protect kidney tissue. In addition, it is reported that after the injection of curcumol extract into the hyperuric acid mouse model, the serum uric acid of the mice decreased significantly, the uric acid excretion in the urine increased significantly, and the activity of the liver xanthine oxidase was effectively inhibited, suggesting that the turmeric can still Used to treat gout.
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