◆ Sweeteners are an indispensable and important raw material in the food industry and health care. However, synthetic sweeteners, which are mostly in the sweetener market, may have carcinogenic and pathogenic side effects on human body, and thus have been restricted in many countries. Excessive consumption of sucrose leads to more and more diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes and dental caries. Low-energy, non-toxic natural sweeteners are ideal food and pharmaceutical additives for humans.
◆ Diseases caused by excessive intake of high-calorie foods, especially sugars, have become a major social problem in some developed countries, and more and more people are looking for low-calorie natural sweetener additives to meet the demand for sweet foods. At present, there are only a few sweeteners widely used in the world. According to the source, they can be divided into two categories: the first category is a natural sweetener, which refers to a natural component that is naturally synthesized in various organisms. And the products that are available. The second category is a chemically synthesized sweetener, which refers to a class of sweet-smelling compounds synthesized by chemical methods. In our foods and beverages, the addition of saccharin-based chemically synthesized sweeteners is relatively large, and such sweeteners are not conducive to human health.
2 Status of natural sweeteners
Due to the high development requirements for natural sweeteners and the strict safety testing of products, there are only a handful of natural sweetener products developed at home and abroad. The following are the natural sweet tastes that have been developed and utilized at home and abroad. Agent products.
2.1 Stevia leaf extract
Steve leaf extract Stevioside, a new natural sweetener with high sweetness and low calorific value. It is a kind of sweet terpene glycoside extracted from the stevia herb of the Compositae. It is white powder. . The use of stevia as a herb and sugar substitute in Paraguay, Brazil and other places in South America has been around for hundreds of years. The sweetener is easily soluble in water and generally has high solubility at low temperature; after high temperature dissolution, the taste is good but the sweetness is low. When used in combination with sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose, etc., not only the sweetness of stevioside is more pure, but also the sweetness can synergistically effect. In addition, stevioside has good properties such as heat resistance, acid resistance, alkali resistance and salt tolerance, and it will not be mildewed or deteriorated during long-term storage, and there is no browning phenomenon. The taste is similar to white sugar, and its sweetness is about 300 times that of sucrose.
In recent years, experts from the American Medical Association have pointed out that regular consumption of foods containing aspartame induces symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and other cranial neuropathy, so as a zero-calorie natural sweetener, stevia Sugar has become a leader in natural sweeteners. It does not contain any calories and is very safe to the human body. According to the international sweetener industry, stevioside can be widely used in food and beverage, including Coca-Cola, Uniform, Mengniu, The main food and beverage manufacturers including Pepsi and Unilever have used stevia as a sweetener, and their sales momentum has even overwhelmed traditional chemical sweeteners such as sodium saccharin. In addition, stevioside has been widely used in the production of other foods in Asia, North America, South America and the European Union.
Neohesperidin is a high-sweet, non-toxic, low-energy sweetener. It is from Spain Citrus aurantium L. A bitterin extracted from the peel, 1000 times sweeter than sucrose. Neohesperidin is widely used in heat-treated foods. In addition, the sweetener is one of the main bitter substances in beverages such as orange juice, and is used at a lower concentration than other sweeteners, has high acid resistance, and is suitable for the production of a refreshing beverage. At present, new hesperidin has been applied in some countries in Europe and America, but due to the high production cost, the amount of use is limited. In Belgium, a derivative of neohesperidin is used as a sweetener for beer and is favored by consumers.
2.3 Monk fruit extract Mogroside
Momordica grosvenori Swingle that is produced in Guangxi, can be used to treat hypertension. Monk fruit has a sweet substance, Momordica grosvenori extract mogroside, which is a triterpenoid glucoside, which is safe in eating, high in sweetness and low in calories. Its sweetness is 260 times that of sucrose, calories are only 1/50 of that of sucrose, and sweetness is similar to stevia. No discomfort, fragrant and delicious, it is ideal for adding to fruit drinks, and can be used in a variety of beverages.
Glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhizic acid, is Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. The sweet component in the root is a triterpene glycoside with a yield of 4% to 5%. The sweetness is about 80 to 300 times that of sucrose, and the sodium glycyrrhizinate extracted from licorice, that is, the aqueous solution diluted 4000 times, also has a sweet taste. In addition, glycyrrhizin has low heat energy, safe and non-toxic and strong health care effects. It is the most ideal sweetener for patients with hypertension, obesity, diabetes and heart disease. It can make up for the drawbacks of the above-mentioned diseases caused by sweeteners such as sucrose. The sweetness of glycyrrhizin is slightly bitter, and generally can be used in combination with stevioside, sodium citrate, etc. to obtain a more delicious sweet taste. The efficacy of glycyrrhizin also has anti-allergic effects, inhibition of arachidonic acid-metabolizing enzymes, immunomodulation, inhibition of experimental hepatocyte injury, and inhibition of virus proliferation and virus inactivation. Therefore, licorice is one of the special medicinal materials in China, and its output is large. It has a good development prospect for further research, development and utilization and improvement of its sweetness quality. In the United States, glycyrrhizin is generally used as a flavoring agent and flavor enhancer. In the food, it can also be made into soy sauce, in addition to improving the salty taste to enhance the inherent taste of the soy sauce, it can eliminate the bitter taste of the saccharin, and has a synergistic effect on the chemical flavoring agent. It can also be made into a marinade and a saccharin and a salted pickle. In the middle, it can eliminate the bitter taste of saccharin. In the curing process, it can overcome the disadvantages of fermentation failure, discoloration, hardening, etc. which occur with less sugar, and can also be used as a flavoring agent.
2.5 Sweet tea
Sweet tea is Rubus suavissimusS. A low-calorie, high-sweet diterpene sweet tea raspberry extract extracted from Lee, produced in Liuzhou, Guilin, and Zhangzhou, Guangxi. Its pure product is white needle crystal, the sweetness is 300 times that of sucrose, and the calorific value is low. When used together with sucrose, the sweetness of sucrose can be increased by 3 times at a content of 1%. It is stable to heat and acid. It does not increase cholesterol when eaten, and does not cause dental caries. Patients such as cardiovascular, obesity and diabetes can drink. Sweet teas also include the genus Fagaceae, the scutellaria, and the sedge, the white vine, according to the origin. Sweet tea is the world's most natural sweet, non-toxic, high-sweet, low-calorie and health-care plant. In addition, the development of sweet tea polyphenol products mostly utilizes their anti-allergic properties and is applied to food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and the like. With the improvement of living standards and the enhancement of health awareness, sweet tea will serve as a new generation of health care products with broad development prospects at home and abroad. Sweet tea is a sugar substitute and health care product that is being developed by developed countries. It has also been developed into a variety of beverages, confectionery and granules in Japan. We should strengthen the research on the deep processing of sweet tea and develop a variety of sweet tea products.
2.6 Sweet protein
In the research field of sweet protein, Thaumatin and Monellin are the earliest and most studied. Also, from the Chinese medicine Capparis masaikai Levl. A horse betel nut, Mabinlin, was isolated from the mature seeds. Its sweetness lasts, but its sweetness is much weaker than Monellin and Thaumatin. Sweet protein has high sweetness, low calorie, and is not easily used by bacteria. This product is suitable for patients with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, etc., and can prevent dental caries in children. Therefore, it is a promising food additive in today's society.
2.7 Alcohol sugar
Alcoholic sugars include xylitol, mannitol, sorbitol, etc., which have a pure sweet taste and are safe and non-toxic. Widely found in natural plants and foods, they produce different sweetness and calories, many of which do not require a maximum use limit. Sugar alcohol is widely used in the production and application of sugar sugar as a substitute for white sugar, and can also be used as a sugar substitute for diabetic food.
3 Development of natural sweetener plants
With the continuous research and development of human plants, many roots, stems, leaves or fruits of plants have been found to contain very rich sweet non-sugar compounds, high in sweetness and low in calories, which are used in human life. It is a very good non-sugar natural sweetener, and it also has a good health care effect.
3.2 Screening for potential sweet plants
In recent years, some sweet plants have been developed and utilized, such as stevia, mangosteen, sweet tea, white ginseng, and betel nut. These sweet plants can extract small molecule sweeteners. Screening for potential plant resources is an important way to develop new natural sweeteners, screening more and better sweet and sweet plant resources from wild plants. Form a complete system in the field of wild resource survey, excellent variety selection, artificial cultivation techniques, chemical composition research, processing technology and equipment. Sweet plants are widely distributed in China and come in a wide variety. Mainly belong to more than 10 families such as leguminous, palm family, Compositae, Cucurbitaceae, Cruciferae and so on. The sweet plants that have been discovered and studied mainly belong to the following families: Phyllostachys, Physalis, Leguminosae, Cucurbitaceae, Compositae, Labiatae, Rosaceae, Verbenaceae, Hawthorn, Fagaceae, Grape family, walnut family, it is difficult to use plant taxonomy as a clue to find the basis of plant sweeteners.
4 Problems in the development and utilization of natural sweetener plants
The original intention of the development of natural sweeteners is to replace the need for sweet taste, and they need to have many advantages, such as high sweetness, low calorie, no effect on health, no toxic side effects, and most Anti-caries and good product stability. In the development and utilization, we must not only focus on the above aspects, but also pay attention to the taste of the product, try to avoid the product has bitter taste, metallic taste, impure taste, etc., and often need a variety of sweeteners.
Sweeteners are food additives, and safety factors are of utmost importance. The food departments of various countries attach great importance to this and have issued a number of laws and regulations. Each new sweetener must undergo strict toxicological verification. The World Health Organization (WTO), the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the World Food Additives Joint Expert Committee (JECFA) are global authorities with a focus on the safety and maximum daily intake (ADI) of sweeteners. Provisions have a guiding role.
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