Gallic acid is a natural organic phenolic acid with the versatility of polyphenols and acids. It is the main active ingredient of many plants. It is usually widely present in gallnuts in the form of free acids or esters. , eucalyptus, big leafhopper, pomegranate skin and other plants. As an organic phenolic acid, gallic acid has strong reducibility and is easy to react with proteins, enzymes and alkaloids, and exerts biological functions such as antibacterial, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory. In addition, it has anti-tumor and anti-mutation effects. Anti-free radical and other characteristics. At present, plant-derived feed additives with gallic acid as the main active ingredient have achieved certain effects in regulating animal growth and health and reducing antibiotic use in livestock production.
1.1 The molecular structure of gallic acid
Gallic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, has the molecular formula C6H2( OH)3COOH. Gallic acid can be prepared under the catalytic conditions of acid, alkali, enzyme, etc., and the extract is white or light brown needle. A crystalline or prismatic crystal, often present in the form of a monohydrate with a relative molecular mass of 170.12.
1.2 Metabolic pathway of gallic acid
After the gallic acid enters the body, under the action of various enzymes of intestinal bacteria in the body, decarboxylation and methylation reaction are easy to occur, and the product mainly exists in the form of methylsulfation, glucuronidation and sulfation. Part of the metabolite is transported from the intestinal segment to the serosal membrane by glucuronyltransferase or the like into the blood circulation, and part of the glycoside is passively diffused and absorbed in the small intestine. Other flavonoid metabolites are excreted to the bile through the enterohepatic circulation and reabsorbed from the intestine.
2 Biological function of gallic acid
2.1 Bacteriostatic effect
Gallic acid has significant inhibitory effects on 6 common foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli) Listeria monocytogenes has the best inhibitory effect, and 4 mg /mL gallic acid has different effects on the growth curve of the above pathogens. In addition, gallic acid is common in vitro, such as Salmonella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Helicobacter pylori 4. Pathogenic bacteria also have a certain growth inhibition effect.
2.2 Antioxidant effect
Gallic acid plays a significant role in scavenging free radicals, effectively removing excess reactive oxygen species produced by the body, protecting and inhibiting oxidative damage from proteins, lipids and DNA.
2.3 Anti-inflammatory effects
Gallic acid inhibits the expression and activity of various inflammatory factors, thereby exerting an anti-inflammatory effect. The derivatives of gallic acid also have an anti-inflammatory effect.
2.4 Anti-tumor effect
Gallic acid can exert anti-tumor properties by inhibiting tumor cell growth and inducing tumor cell apoptosis.
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