Centella Asiatica, or Gotu kola is a dried whole grass of Centella asiatica L. Urban, which contains triterpenes, volatile oils, polyacetylenes, and flavones, steroids, sterols and other components, have anti-cancer, inhibit scar hyperplasia, anti-ulcer and antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and other biological activities.
1 Study on the main chemical constituents of Centella asiatica
Triterpenoids are the earliest and most widely used ingredients in Centella Asiatica extract powder, mainly triterpenoid saponins and triterpenoid acids. Triterpenoid saponins are mainly pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins. At present, 41 pentacyclic triterpenoids have been isolated from Centella Asiatica. The relatively higher content is asiaticoside. (madecassoside), Asiaticoside B, and a small amount of glassy glycosides, glassy rice glycosides, ginsenosides, isopinoids, etc. Dammarane-type tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins, including four new compounds, centelloside A, centelloside B, ginsenoside Mc, and ginsenoside Y. Triterpene acid has fewer constituents, and mainly hydroxymadecassic acid and asiatic acid.
1.2 Essential oils
Researchers identified 16 volatile components from Centella asiatica, accounting for 79.22% of the total peak area. The main volatile components were (E) -β-falkenene (36.97%) and caryophyllene (13. 61%), large root geranene D (10.95%), α-catadiene (2.76%) and geraniol (2.33%). Extraction of Volatile Centella Asiatica by Steam Distillation
Oil, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) combined analysis, the results showed that 45 components were separated and identified, the main components were caryophyllene (19.36%), farnesol (17.66%), Elemene (4.42%) and longifolene (4.21%).
At present, more than 20 polyacetylene compounds have been isolated from Centella Asiatica. Schulte isolated 14 long-chain polyacetylene compounds from Centella Asiatica for the first time in 1973, and structured 5 of them. It was identified as C15H20O2, C17H21O3, C19H27O4, C16H21O2, and C19H28O3. In 1975, Bohlman isolated C19 H28 O3 and C17 H24 O3 from the Centella Asiatica. Subsequently, polyacetylenes such as centellin, asiaticin, centellicin, and cadiyenol were isolated from Centella Asiatica.
In addition, Centella Asiatica also contains flavonoids, sterols, alkaloids, lignans, amino acids, fatty acids, sugars, tannins, and polyphenols, including behenol, behenol-3-glucoside, mountain Gallic acid, quercetin, quercetin-3 -glucoside, beta-sitosterol, hexacosanol octanoate, carotene, chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, succinic acid, glucose, etc.