The chemical composition of Ganoderma lucidum is very complex. It contains Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides, triterpenoids, proteins, amino acids, sterols, alkaloids and other active ingredients.
1. 1 Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide
Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide is one of the main active ingredients of Ganoderma lucidum, with complex structure, molecular weight ranging from hundreds to hundreds of thousands, and a wide variety. The contents and types of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides contained in different types of ganoderma, different parts of ganoderma and different growth stages of ganoderma will vary.
1. 2 Triterpenoids
Triterpenoids are also one of the main active ingredients of Ganoderma lucidum. They have high fat solubility and molecular weights of 400 to 500. Most of them are highly oxidized lanostane derivatives, which have complex chemical structures and many types. According to the structure and functional group, it can be divided into more than 10 kinds, such as ganoderma acid, ganoderma spore acid, ganoderma alcohol, ganoderma aldehyde, ganoderma lactone, red ganoderic acid, ganoderic ketone, etc. Among them, ganoderic acid is the main component.
1. 3 Proteins, peptides and amino acids
There are many types of proteins in Ganoderma, including fungal immunomodulatory proteins, lectins, glycoproteins, and enzymes.
1. 4 Nucleoside compounds
Nucleosides are soluble in water, mainly including adenine, adenine nucleoside, uridine, uridine, ganoderma glycoside, ganoderma purine, uracil, uracil nucleoside, etc., the content and type of which are related to the variety and location of ganoderma .
1. 5 Sterols
Ganoderma lucidum is rich in sterols and is one of the active ingredients in ganoderma. The ergosterol content is only 0.3%.
1. 6 Alkaloids
Alkaloids mainly include betaine, choline, nicotinic acid, ganoderma A, and ganoderma B.
1. 7 Trace elements
Ganoderma contains 24 trace elements such as magnesium, calcium, copper, germanium, selenium, zinc, and iron, including many essential trace elements.
1. 8 Other ingredients
Ganoderma also contains cellulose, vitamin C, vitamin E, carotene, furan resins, coumarin, lignin, fatty acids, volatile oils, heteroterpenes and phenolic compounds. They also have certain physiological activities and pharmacology effect.